Table-4 Degree of Emergency and Major Countermeasures


Degree of Emergency

Major countermeasures

At the time of temporary or short-term
supply shortage, or when the domestic
supply/demand situation becomes significantly tight for a considerable period (early stage)

 ○Monitoring price and supply/demand moves
 ○Release stock piles
 ○Secure imports
 

When released stock piles are not sufficient to meet the national requirements
 







 

(Production)
 
Urgent production increase of rice, wheat and other products
 
Production conversion to products of high
  calorie efficiency
(Price and Distribution)
 
Monitoring price and supply/demand moves
 
Legal actions under the two major Laws on
  National Life, Food Laws and other relevant
  legislations

 

Table-5 Outline of Food Security Policies in Major Foreign Countries

CountryUnderlying LawsTarget Food SupplyOutline of Food Security Policies
Germany
Population: 8,2130,000
Grain self-sufficiency: 128%



 
Stable Food Supply Law (1965)

Emergency Food Law (1990)

 
Intake basis:
2,400lcal/day/person
(at peacetime:
3,500kcal/day/person)



 
Implement national stockpiling (target volume: one month worth), encourage in-home stockpilng (two weeks worth)
◆   As emergency measures, necessary regulations can be issued under laws and orders relating to production, shipment, supply and rationing of agricultural products. Enacted at present is a law to control food supply by distributing rationing cards (Food Control Order: 1979) 
Switzerland
Population: 7,300,000
Grain self-sufficiency: 65%



 
Article 31 of the Constitution, Federal Law concerning National Economic Commodities Supply (1982)Intake basis:
2,300lcal/day/person
(at peacetime:
3,300kcal/day/person)



 
Implement mandatory stockpiling at business establishments (basically 6 months worth), encourage in-home stockpiling (two weeks worth)
◆   The "Food Supply Plan" , a combination of domestic production, importing and stockpiling measures, is developed for emergencies (rationing, domestic production increase by product conversion and others)
Sweden
Population: 8,880,000
Grain self-sufficiency: 129%


 
Article 13 of the Constitution and Diet Resolution


 
Intake basis:
2,900lcal/day/person
(same as at peacetime)



 
Implement national stockpiling (volume regarded as a military secret), encourage in-home stockpiling (national stockpiling system is planned to be abolished within 5 years after 1997)
◆   Rationing, production and diet conversion from animal foods to vegetable foods at the time of emergency
Finland
Population: 5,150,000
Grain self-sufficiency: 126%
Supply Security Law (1992)

 
Intake basis:
2,800lcal/day/person
(same as at peacetime)

 
    Implement national stockpiling (one year worth of food grains, 6 months worth of feed grains), encourage home stockpiling
 
Norway
Population: 4,420,000
Grain self-sufficiency: 66%
Grain Supply Law and others

 
Intake basis:
2,900lcal/day/person
(same as at peacetime)

 
Implement national stockpiling, encourage home stockpiling
◆   Enlargement of agricultural land area, diversification of country of imports and others at the time of emergency

 

Note: The population figure was taken from 1998 data, and the grain self-sufficiency ratio form 1997 data.